Design and Technology is a practical subject area which requires the application of knowledge and understanding when developing ideas, planning, producing products and evaluating them. The distinction between Designing and Making is a convenient one to make, but in practice the two often merge. For example, research can involve not only investigating printed matter and people’s opinions, but also investigating e.g. proportions, adhesives, colour, structures and materials through practical work. The skills which follow underpin all learning and cover the programme of study for KS4 Design and Technology.
Designing Skills Candidates will be taught to:
• be creative and innovative when designing;
• design products to meet the needs of clients and consumers;
• understand the design principles of form, function and fitness for purpose;
• understand the role that designers and product developers have, and the impact and responsibility they have on and to society;
• analyse and evaluate existing products, including those from professional designers;
• develop and use design briefs and specifications for product development;
• consider the conflicting demands that moral, cultural, economic, and social values and needs can make in the planning and in the designing of products;
• consider environmental and sustainability issues in designing products;
• consider health and safety in all its aspects;
• anticipate and design for product maintenance where appropriate;
• design for manufacturing in quantity and to be aware of current commercial/industrial processes;
• generate design proposals against stated design criteria, and to modify their proposals in the light of on-going analysis, evaluation and product development;
• reflect critically when evaluating and modifying their design ideas and proposals in order to improve the products throughout inception and manufacture;
• use, where appropriate, a range of graphic techniques and ICT (including digital media), including CAD, to generate, develop, model and communicate design proposals;
• investigate and select appropriate materials and components;
• plan and organise activities which involve the use of materials and components when developing or manufacturing;
• devise and apply test procedures;
• check the quality of their work at critical/key points during development, and to indicate ways of modifying and improving it when necessary;
• communicate the design proposal in an appropriate manner;
• be flexible and adaptable when designing;
• test and evaluate the final design proposal against the design specification;
• evaluate the work of other designers to inform their own practice;
• the advantages of working collaboratively as a member of a design team;
• understand the need to protect design ideas. Making Skills Candidates should be taught to:
• select and use tools/equipment and processes to produce quality products;
• consider the solution to technical problems in the design and manufacture process;
• use tools and equipment safely with regard to themselves and others;
• work accurately and efficiently in terms of time, materials and components; • manufacture products applying quality control procedures;
• have knowledge of Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) and to use as appropriate;
• ensure, through testing, modification and evaluation, that the quality of their products is suitable for intended users and devise modifications where necessary that would improve the outcome(s);
• the advantages of working as part of a team when designing and making products.
Students will develop a working knowledge of textiles materials and components appropriate to modelling, prototyping and manufacturing.
Candidates will be taught to: Fibres and Fabrics Properties and characteristics • have a working knowledge of the basic composition, physical and aesthetic characteristics of a range of different fibres to include: natural fibres (cotton and wool), regenerated fibres (viscose), synthetic fibres (polyester and elastomeric);
• have a working knowledge of combination, construction and use of textiles fibres and fabrics;
• understand the need to combine fibres, to include polyester/cotton and combinations including elastomerics;
• investigate woven fabrics (plain weave, twill weave and satin weave), knitted fabrics and one non-woven fabric. Through disassembly investigate how they are constructed. Know that modern microfibres can be used to construct woven, knitted, laminated and micro-encapsulated ‘Smart’ fabrics;
• be aware of technological advances in textiles materials and their use in a wide range of industries;
• assess and evaluate the working properties of fibres and fabrics and how they can impact on fabric choices for products. Be aware of the use of manufacturers’ fabric specifications to select fabrics, and how manufacturing techniques and processes can influence fabric choices. Product maintenance, suitability and fitness for purpose
• know and design for the maintenance needs of textile products including typical/popular fabrics made from them and implement current textile labelling, including statutory legislation;
• understand the factors which constitute suitability/ fitness for purpose, i.e. wearability, warmth, comfort, absorbency, durability, after care, safety, flammability, stain resistance, aesthetic qualities. Finishing Processes Dyeing and printing
• have a knowledge and understanding of one basic commercial method and one hand method of dyeing and printing fabric. Decoration and enhancement • select and know how to use a variety of appropriate surface decorative techniques in order to improve the aesthetic qualities of textiles, fabrics and products.
• have a working knowledge of finishes (to include stain resistance, water resistance, flame retardancy, crease resistance) applied to fabrics in order to improve their performance; evaluate the effects of these fabric finishes paying attention to use, comfort, safety, maintenance, manufacturing costs and retail price;
• have knowledge of at least one modern ‘Smart’ finish to fabrics (to include thermochromatic printing);
• have knowledge of emerging technologies: nano materials and integrated electronics within textiles designs.
Components Manufactured Components
• select, use and evaluate the function, suitability and safety of manufactured components in design and make tasks; identify and have a working knowledge of components including fastenings (to include zips, buttons and Velcro), threads, trimmings, interfacing, motifs, labels and electronic components; be aware of the technological advancements in component design.
Unit 1: Written Paper 3 GCSE Design and Technology:
Design and market influences students will be taught how to analyse textile products and processes. They will consider how design and technology affects the manufacturer, user and environment, and the importance of health and safety issues. They will be aware of new developments in technology and current social issues that may influence product design. Students should be taught to:
Product analysis Product Design
• understand the influence of trend forecasts when designing textiles products;
• analyse past and present textile designs and products in order to evaluate shape, style, aesthetics, choice of materials and components, construction techniques, decorative techniques, fitness for purpose, marketability; and use the findings of this research to generate new and original design ideas. Evaluation Techniques
• check of design proposals against design criteria;
• use disassembly to make critical judgements about the design, manufacture and performance of existing products;
• list design criteria that influence textile product design and use this to test and evaluate the final design proposal;
• understand the purpose and value of a design specification to guide design thinking;
• quality assurance through testing and evaluation of quality and fitness for purpose;
• use ongoing evaluation to make judgements and to suggest improvements during design development and making activities;
• consider other peoples’ views when selecting and refining product designs, to include user trials. Evaluation of quality of own product compared with market alternatives
• compare design proposal to a similar commercial product in order to review and modify design;
• evaluate the appeal, quality and fitness for purpose of the design proposal against consumer expectations. Social, Cultural, Moral, Health and Safety and Environment Issues Social and cultural influences on the consumer market
• understand the role of the designer and consider the impact of design proposals on society;
• identify developments in technologies, social and cultural ideas, fashion trends and economic factors that influence consumer choice and product design. Consumer choice and ethical issues
• understand the influence of ethical trading and the consumers’ role in social and environmentally sustainable design.
Moral and environmental issues
• understand the moral and environmental issues associated with textiles production;
• understand what is meant by the recycling of textiles, waste reduction, organic and Fair Trade cotton, bio fibres, biodegradable fibres/fabrics. Environmental effects: the disposal of chemicals used to manufacture products; the need to dispose of waste in a safe and environmentally friendly way Health and Safety issues
• understand that the health and safety of both consumers and the work force is important. As designers and consumers:
• select the appropriate materials and components;
• consider safety in terms of function;
• be aware of consumer rights and safety warnings on textile products. As manufacturers:
• be aware of and understand Risk Assessments in relation to:
• the correct and safe use of tools and equipment;
• the correct and safe usage of materials, chemicals, solvents, flammable and toxic substances used in textile manufacture;
• the need for correct protective clothing and safe working practices.
Processes and manufacture Candidates should be aware of, and use appropriate, manufacturing processes and techniques including CAD and CAM. They should be aware of industrial and commercial practice and know about the processes involved in the commercial manufacture of textile products. Candidates should be taught to:
Techniques And Processes
• select and use appropriate textile tools and equipment;
• know and understand how to use appropriate tools, machinery and equipment, including an overlocker, accurately and safely to produce own quality products. Range of processes used for textile production and manufacture
• understand the various industrial systems used to produce textile products, including mass, batch and one-off production and procedures including Just In Time, line and sub-assembly;
• select and use the most appropriate technique(s), process (es) and equipment for manufacture.
Planning the development and manufacture of a product Candidates must know how to: produce plans to ensure efficient production and successful completion, to include —
• a flow chart to show logical and efficient sequences of work;
• a detailed working drawing;
• a manufacturing specification;
• costs of production, including the constraints of budget and time scale. Quality Assurance
• produce prototypes of own design(s) and test against the design and manufacturing specification and modify the product, where appropriate, to ensure that it meets the specifications;
• incorporate modifications as necessary during manufacture to ensure quality products.
Information and Communication Technology Computer Technology and Communication
• use ICT as appropriate to research, collect, sort and present information;
• use graphic techniques, as appropriate, including CAD and CAM to design, develop, modify, enhance, model and communicate ideas. Use of CAD and CAM
• know and understand the importance and benefits of using CAD/CAM in textile production in a global industry;
• know and understand that CAD/CAM can be used to aid planning, to enhance accuracy and efficiency of production and assure aesthetic quality;
• know and understand that CAD/CAM can be important in the reduction of manufacturing costs.
Students will need to purchase their own fabric and components for their controlled assessment in Year 11. This does not need to be costly and is determined by students’ individual designs.